Database Connection Settings

Craft supports several database connection settings that give you control over how Craft connects to the database.

Ultimately, database connection settings must be set from config/db.php, but we recommend you initially set them as environment variables (such as in your .env file), and then pull the environment variable value into config/db.php using getenv().

For example, in a new Craft 3 project, your .env file should define these environment variables:

ENVIRONMENT="dev"
SECURITY_KEY=""
DB_DRIVER="mysql"
DB_SERVER="localhost"
DB_USER="root"
DB_PASSWORD=""
DB_DATABASE=""
DB_SCHEMA="public"
DB_TABLE_PREFIX=""
DB_PORT=""

The variables that start with DB_ are database connection settings, and they get pulled into config/db.php like this:

return [
    'driver' => getenv('DB_DRIVER'),
    'server' => getenv('DB_SERVER'),
    'user' => getenv('DB_USER'),
    'password' => getenv('DB_PASSWORD'),
    'database' => getenv('DB_DATABASE'),
    'schema' => getenv('DB_SCHEMA'),
    'tablePrefix' => getenv('DB_TABLE_PREFIX'),
    'port' => getenv('DB_PORT')
];

We recommend this environment variable approach for two reasons:

  1. It keeps sensitive information out of your project’s codebase. (.env files should never be shared or committed to Git.)
  2. It makes collaborating with other developers easier, as each developer can define their own settings without overwriting someone else’s settings.

Here’s the full list of database connection settings that Craft supports:

attributes

Allowed types
array
Default value
[]
Defined by
DbConfig::$attributes

An array of key => value pairs of PDO attributes to pass into the PDO constructor.

For example, when using the MySQL PDO driver (http://php.net/manual/en/ref.pdo-mysql.php), if you wanted to enable a SSL database connection (assuming SSL is enabled in MySQL (https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/using-secure-connections.html) and 'user' can connect via SSL, you'd set these:

[
    PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_KEY    => '/path/to/my/client-key.pem',
    PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CERT   => '/path/to/my/client-cert.pem',
    PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CA     => '/path/to/my/ca-cert.pem',
],

charset

Allowed types
string
Default value
'utf8'
Defined by
DbConfig::$charset

The charset to use when creating tables.

database

Allowed types
string
Default value
''
Defined by
DbConfig::$database

The name of the database to select.

driver

Allowed types
string
Default value
self::DRIVER_MYSQL
Defined by
DbConfig::$driver

The database driver to use. Either 'mysql' for MySQL or 'pgsql' for PostgreSQL.

dsn

Allowed types
string
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$dsn

If you want to manually specify your PDO DSN connection string you can do so here.

password

Allowed types
string
Default value
''
Defined by
DbConfig::$password

The database password to connect with.

port

Allowed types
integer
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$port

The database server port. Defaults to 3306 for MySQL and 5432 for PostgreSQL.

schema

Allowed types
string
Default value
'public'
Defined by
DbConfig::$schema

The database schema to use (PostgreSQL only).

server

Allowed types
string
Default value
'localhost'
Defined by
DbConfig::$server

The database server name or IP address. Usually 'localhost' or '127.0.0.1'.

tablePrefix

Allowed types
string
Default value
''
Defined by
DbConfig::$tablePrefix

If you're sharing Craft installs in a single database (MySQL) or a single database and using a shared schema (PostgreSQL), then you can set a table prefix here to avoid table naming conflicts per install. This can be no more than 5 characters, and must be all lowercase.

unixSocket

Allowed types
string, null
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$unixSocket

MySQL only. If this is set, then the CLI connection string (used for yiic) will connect to the Unix socket, instead of the server and port. If this is specified, then 'server' and 'port' settings are ignored.

url

Allowed types
string, null
Default value
null
Defined by
DbConfig::$url

The database connection URL, if one was provided by your hosting environment.

If this is set, the values for $driver, $user, $database, $server, $port, and $database will be extracted from it.

user

Allowed types
string
Default value
'root'
Defined by
DbConfig::$user

The database username to connect with.